Thursday, May 21, 2020
Gay-LussacÃ¢â¬â¢s Law is a special case of the ideal gas law. This law only applies to ideal gases held at a constant volume allowing only the pressure and temperature to change. Gay-LussacÃ¢â¬â¢s Law is expressed as:Pi/Ti Pf/TfwherePi initial pressureTi initial absolute temperaturePf final pressureTf final absolute temperature It is extremely important to remember the temperatures are absolute temperatures measured in Kelvin, NOT Ã °C or Ã °F.
Monday, May 18, 2020
The idea for BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s Taxonomy was born in 1948 during an informal meeting at the American Psychological Association Convention in Boston, by Benjamin S Bloom and a committee of over 30 leading educators. (Bloom, Engelhart, Furst, Hill Krathwol, 1956 p. 4) Although the taxonomy is general referred to as BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s Taxonomy, the work is considered a group product that came form many revisions. (Bloom et al., 1956 p.9) The original work of BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s Taxonomy (OW) came in the form of handbook, titled the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals. The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives consisted of the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domain. (Bloom et al., 1956 p. 7) The cognitive domain focused on sex levelÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(Bloom et al., 1956 p. 5) However, the committee agreed that since educational objectives can be view in behavior form and behavior of individuals can be observed and measured, a classification could be applied. (Bloom et al., 1956 p. 7) To fully understand the OW, it is important to define and clarify the term taxonomy as it is used in the handbook. The term taxonomy refers to the classification systems that have made the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives so popular in the world of education today. (Seaman, 2011 p. 30) The classification system was intended to measure the degree to which student learned and intend educational behavior. (Bloom et al., 1956 p. 12) The committee likened its taxonomy system, to the classification of book in a library. (Bloom et al., 1956 p. 9) The OW classifications are; 1) Knowledge 2) Comprehension 3) Application 4) Analysis 5) Synthesis and 6) Evaluation. (Bloom et al., 1956 p. 18) These six classifications comprise a tiered learning system that teachers used to push students through when implementing an instructional model based on the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives in the OW. Each classification level presented a higher amount of rigor, which required students to think more cr itically. (McKay, 1956) The OW of BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s taxonomy suggested that critical thinking and higher order skills are essential to student development. Essentially, the OW was designed to provide teachers with a
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
One major difference Apuleius makes in his depiction of Psyche is that he places a premise in her original encounter with Cupid Ã¢â¬â she is not allowed to know his identity nor to see his face. The sequence of PsycheÃ¢â¬â¢s acquaintance with her lover, in fact, plays quite an important role in the story. People often say that, Ã¢â¬Å"To see is to believe.Ã¢â¬ However, it is not always the case. Under the circumstance of love, what one sees will be highly deceptive, as it is human nature that one will prefer individuals with charming faces or distinguished reputations and thus more easily fall victim to his/her biased judgement. As illustrated by the misery of Echo in OvidÃ¢â¬â¢s Metamorphosis, her love for Narcissus bases so much on his outstandingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦As a matter of fact, the way a person communicates is a significant reflection of his/her mindset; hence, through their conversations, Psyche is able to understand the internal world of his lov er and build up psychologically empathetic connection with him. (Quotes from the story of Cupid and Psyche that she is able to feel his kindness.) Without the intervention of illusive perception, Psyche senses the concern from her husband more distinctly by heart, and consequently enforces their association in later time. (outwardly attractive) Some might argue that even though Psyche might take advantages of learning about the true characteristics of her husband by her mind and soul instead of her eyes, the fact that she can neither perceive CupidÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance nor get information about his life span still violates their relationship; Otherwise, Psyche will never try to ascertain CupidÃ¢â¬â¢s identity. Nevertheless, to grasp the real essence does not imply that Psyche should never have knowledge of Cupid; instead, to know a person in a comprehensive way, both the interior nature and the exterior features are crucial. The thing that matters is the chronology of the cognitiv e process. In PsycheÃ¢â¬â¢s situation, she manages to decipher her husband to form their mental ties before she actually catches sight of him, and after that her discovery of CupidÃ¢â¬â¢s truth constructs a more inseparable interconnection rooted with her intellectual comprehension, muchShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Kafka s The Metamorphosis 1166 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesamong the most important writers of the twentieth century for works that express modern humanity s loss of personal and collective order. His writing describes the situations of psychological, social, political, and physical instability and confusion that defy logical explanation and which typify Kafka s conception of humanity s absurd relationship with the universe (Kafka, 2013). Although Kafka s work has elicited various critical interpretations, he himself characterized his fiction as symbolicRead MoreAnalysis Of Kafka s The Metamorphosis 989 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesRalph FreedmanÃ¢â¬â¢s critical essay titled Ã¢â¬Å"KafkaÃ¢â¬â¢s ObscurityÃ¢â¬ on Franz KafkaÃ¢â¬â¢s The Metamorphosis delves into the idea that from changes in the protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s physical limitations, familial bonds, and his being Ã¢â¬Å"[he] is finally reduced to a mere speck of self-awareness which is ultimately extinguishedÃ¢â¬ (Freedman 131). General questions of Ã¢â¬Å"whyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"howÃ¢â¬ are almost immediately dismissed due to the calm and monotonous tone that Kafka implements throughout the novel. Instead, the reader is encouraged toRead MoreAnalysis Of Franz Kafka s The Metamorphosis 3979 Words Ã |Ã 16 PagesAustin Day Professor Imali Abala English 357 18 February 2015 The Theme of Alienation in Franz KafkaÃ¢â¬â¢s The Metamorphosis The Metamorphosis written by Franz Kafka in 1915 is said to be one of the greatest literary works of all time and is seen as one of KafkaÃ¢â¬â¢s best and most popular works of literature. A relatively short novel; the story explains how the protagonist, Gregor Samsa wakes up one morning to find himself transformed into a vermin which completely estranges him from the world even moreRead MoreAnalysis Of Kafka s The Metamorphosis 2407 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesbe fair to conclude that the society we live in undergoes a social metamorphosis into some states, conditions and status that cannot be possibly fathomed by a rational and neutral human being, in comparison to what is perceived as normal. This change is normally brought about as a result of various factors and environments that we interact with in our life. Whereas KafkaÃ¢â¬â¢s novella starts off with a sudden Ã¢â¬Å"physical metamorphosisÃ¢â¬ , plenty of accompanying psychological and sociological changes areRead MoreAnalys is Of Franz Kafka s The Metamorphosis 1711 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestheme that most readers can relate to. Franz Kafka, a renowned German-speaking fiction writer of the 20th century, uses a unique style of writing that many people believe is a telling of his own life story. In his well-known short story, Ã¢â¬Å"The MetamorphosisÃ¢â¬ , many similarities and connections can be seen between the main character, Gregor Samsa, and the author himself, Franz Kafka. A major comparison that can be made is the fact that both Samsa and Kafka died slow, lonesome deaths after being in aRead MoreAnalysis Of Franz Kafka s The Metamorphosis1873 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagessense of freedom inside their work. The 20th century, battered by economic depression and two world wars, saw these writers take their creative control to emphasize the current state of the freedom and control of the individual. KafkaÃ¢â¬â¢s The Metamorphosis, various World War I poems, and BrechtÃ¢â¬â¢s Fear and Misery of the Thir d Reich show the lack of individual freedom and control that people had over their lives during the destruction that occurred in the 20th century. Published in 1915, Franz KafkaRead MoreAnalysis Of Franz Kafka s The Metamorphosis 1087 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespersecuted couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t help being related to a Jew and yet their pleas for mercy were ignored. Franz KafkaÃ¢â¬â¢s novella is not about a dictator but it alludes to a person close to Franz that was as close to a dictator that he ever go to. Franz KafkaÃ¢â¬â¢s The Metamorphosis, is about a young man that wakes up one day and is a vermin and has to maneuver around his home and come to terms with his six itchy legs. It probably sounds like a load of fictitious ramblings that somehow became a classical novel. Wrong! LookRead MoreAnalysis Of Franz Kafka s The Metamorphosis1500 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"In the morningÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ verminous bug.Ã¢â¬ In Franz KafkaÃ¢â¬â¢s The Metamorphosis, the opening sentence introduces the main character, event and the setting. Gregor Samsa is one of the only two characters who are addressed by name, this reflects his importance in the story because he is the protagonist and he plays a central role in the lives of his family and friends. Besides introducing the central character, this opening line has a dramatic impact on readers. It draws the reader straight to Gregor SamsaÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreAnalysis Of Franz Kafka s The Metamorphosis 948 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthink. Freud says one way humans express their hidden feeling is through dreams. This idea is the foundation for the dream interpretation of Ã¢â¬Å"The Metamorphosis.Ã¢â¬ Dreams have the capacity to encapture events that never happen in reality. They connect with how people reflect their true feelings about a situation or themselves. Throughout Ã¢â¬Å"The MetamorphosisÃ¢â¬ , the author, Kafka, uses GregorÃ¢â¬â¢s repressed feeli ngs incorporated with the dull setting and GregorÃ¢â¬â¢s transformation to support the idea that GregorRead MoreAnalysis Of Franz Kafka s Metamorphosis1985 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesDoes one view oneÃ¢â¬â¢s external self, or do they see a reflection of past experience? Not many have the value of altruism, but some do. Sometimes altruism can turn extremist though, to the point where it can be a negative thing. In Franz KafkaÃ¢â¬â¢s Metamorphosis, the main character Gregor Samsa is a workaholic that randomly one day awakens as a bug. Initially, Gregor sees himself with a condition, and then slowly tries to adapt to his bug transformation. Gregor did not put himself first when he was in
Through the careful reading of American Colonies, written by Alan Taylor, it is clear that there are vast differences as well as a number of similarities between the European competitors as they began to colonize the Americas but diversity can also be found within the colonies they would create. American Colonies shows a close relationship between climate, the state of the economy, and the development of slavery. The varying climate within the Americas proved to have an enormous impact on the source of revenue a colony would rely on to support its economy and this choice of trade would then quickly affect the need for slaves or lack thereof. It is helpful to have an understanding of the variation of the climate within the colonies sinceÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Each colony in the Americas had its fair share of difficulties within their economy. What the colonists chose to rely on as a source of revenue was of utmost importance in creating a stable economy, whether it was the production of sugar, tobacco, cotton, or possibly even the trade of fish or fur. Through the discussion of climate and location, it becomes clear all colonies could not effectively produce or trade the same goods. For instance, the Carolinians were at first dependent upon the trade of deerskins and the use of Indian slaves in their economy. Alan Taylor points out that both deerskins and Indian slaves were Ã¢â¬Å"diminishing commoditiesÃ¢â¬ that were beginning to lay a Ã¢â¬Å"flimsy economic foundation for their new colonyÃ¢â¬ (236). The Carolinians, according to Taylor, recognized that they needed to Ã¢â¬Å"develop a valuable agricultural staple for exportÃ¢â¬ in order to create a stable economy (236). They were then able to cultivate and specialize in rice, becoming the Ã¢â¬Å"English EmpireÃ¢â¬â¢s great rice colony just as the Chesapeake specialized in tobacco and the West Indies in sugarÃ¢â¬ (237). New EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s economy on the other hand had a prosperous start, Ã¢â¬Å"primarily from the regular infusion of newcomers,Ã¢â¬ who Ã¢â¬Å"consumed the crops made by the first-comersÃ¢â¬ (174). However, after the conclusion of the Great Migration in 1640, New England began toShow MoreRelatedKing Leopold s Ghost Response Paper1444 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGhost, Adam Hochschild seeks to revive the fervor and vehemence with which the world remembers this tragedy. Prior to reading this book, my own understanding of the genocide in the Congo was that of just another awful tragedy in the long process of colonial imperialism. However, after reading the extremely detailed King LeopoldÃ¢â¬â¢s Ghost, I was able to take note of LeopoldÃ¢â¬â¢s careful deliberation in his methodical approach to expanding his empire revealing the little regard he had for Congo natives whoRead MoreAmerica s Foreign Policy Proposals Essay1523 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDepartment, however, it is more than likely that he was referring to working closely with colleague whose foreign policy tactics evidently began to differ greatly from his own as time would show. On February 23, 1946, George Kennan was the most careful, thought-provoking, Ã¢â¬Å"nobodyÃ¢â¬ in the United States government. He was considered to be the most widely knowledgeable on Russian affairs, after having lived there for a number of years, but still no one of distinction. Hours later, on the same day,Read MoreAnne Hutchinsons Role Of Women1511 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand Anne Hutchinson portrays that throughout her court case. American Jezebel by Eve LaPlante tells of the courageous acts Anne Hutchinson took and how far she went to be able to teach others and gain respect. LaPlante says: Ã¢â¬Å"I aim neither to disdain nor to exalt my central character. I strive instead for a balanced portrait of Anne HutchinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s life and though, in all their complexity, based on painstaking researchÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (LaPlante,xix) American Jezebel really gives a glimpse into what that time periodRead MoreA Cultural History Of The Atlantic World Essay2126 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesthe ne w world. He especially focuses on the relationships between the native peoples and the incoming Europeans. He explores the ways both groups effected each other. He goes on to state that the way in which the social structure of the European colonies was determine in large measure by the social structure of the indigenous people at the time of European arrival. This serves as ThorntonÃ¢â¬â¢s thesis of the text and he provides evidence to support his claim. He also mentions that most of the time theRead MoreHis Excellency- George Washington Book Review Essays1557 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesgeneral in the American Revolution 3. His actions as President of the United States When writing the biography of George Washington, Ellis uses some primary sources such as George WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s own letters, and official papers. He also uses secondary resources including manuscripts and printed/published sources, newspaper articles, as well as accounts from other leaders in his era to back his writing. Ellis doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t just tell the story of the first president, but is careful to provide theRead MoreThe Declaration of Independence and Constitutional Law Essay1774 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesIn order for one to understand American Constitutional law, one must first look to the Constitution; and therefore, look to the federal government established in the Constitution. The federal government is purposefully divided into three branches: the legislative branch that makes the laws, the judicial branch that interprets the laws, and the executive branch that puts the laws into effect. Article VI, Clause 2, sets up the Constitution as Ã¢â¬Å"the supreme Law of the Land;Ã¢â¬ and therefore, legislatorsRead More Comparison of Dracula and Bram Stokers Dracula Essay1462 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespeoples lives. Beyond these few similarities are numerous contrasts. An obvious difference in these films is that the 1931 version played to a Depression audience and that the Coppola version played to a modern audience. (I am being extremely careful because, obviously, the 1931 audience was modern in 1931; however, we like to think of ourselves as being more modern than past generations. There are differences in the audiences which viewed the respective versions in their time, and I hope to proveRead MoreA Discourse Of National Identity1832 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesStates. Both museums employing traditional classification from the art history, arranging the collections by period, schools, style, movement, and artists. Both collections approach the paradigms that address the historiography of American Art has established: the Colony, the configuration of the Republic, The Civil War, the Centennial of Independence, Modern art or European influence. In turn, each collection reserves a spot to talk about the universal pictorial genres such as landscape, por traitRead MoreWilliam Caslon: The Creator of Typography Essay2010 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThe typeface that inspired William the most was Garamond created by Claude Garamond (Ball 274). WilliamÃ¢â¬â¢s typeface became very similar to Garamond but more improved. According to Ball, Ã¢â¬Å"This is a fine specimen of the type design which, descending through two hundred years of French and Dutch printing, ultimately became a pattern for William Caslon to follow,Ã¢â¬ (291). As he started to engrave for printers, his constant surroundings by typefaces influenced him. EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s type was dominated by the FrenchRead MoreA Look Now At China2003 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesonce again, for religious use. As in other cultures, this required a Ã¢â¬Å"magicianÃ¢â¬ , or a priest. The priest would heat an ox scapula or a tortoise shell until it cracks, and would then attempt to read the cracks in order to answer a question. This reading often involved the priest carving the Ã¢â¬Å"answers Ã¢â¬ into the bone under the guise of creating clarity (Lyons, 18). However fraudulent their practices were, these priests had a huge influence on Chinese writing. The questions the priestÃ¢â¬â¢s client had
TITLE: A VISION OF TEACHING PROFESSION IN 2025 Priyanka Joshi Junior Research Fellow (J. R. F) Dept. We will write a custom essay sample on A Vision of Teaching Profession in 2025 or any similar topic only for you Order Now of Education Panjab University, Chandigarh ABSTRACT KEYWORDS: Professionals, Modalities, continuous, latest trends, technology, mentors, rethink, updating, knowledge, knowledge explosion. We Lead, Care, Inspire For the future of the Nation passes through our hands as Teachers Technological changes in the era of modernization have significantly affected the role of teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ as professionals. As the future of education, rest on the competencies, professional growth and abilities of teachers as professionals so, it cannot be ignored. Related article: HR Map Explained According to Caroll and Resta (2010) teachers of today and tomorrow must be ready to facilitate learning in multiple modalities embracing; greater diversity of space, time, resources, media and methods for learning as well as the new 21st century environments which are synchronous and asynchronous, face to face and virtual. Further, Garoia(2012) referred that the present century has visioned so much of expectations from education which are so high that the teachers of today and tomorrow have to continuously rethink about their professional development. She further highlighted that this professional development is ought to be continuous in process because of; knowledge explosion and latest trends associated to methodology, technology, social and teacher networking. All these demands and requirements have posed a demand on teachers to assess, update, renew and modify themselves as mentors than teachers. The present paper will highlight; a) The teacher of today b) Changing role of the teacher in the present scenario c) Lifelong learning as renewal and updating of knowledge d) In-service growth and teachers Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Followed by conclusion and suggestions. * The Teacher of Today The teacher of today symbolizes himself to be professional in true sense because of the emerging concepts of criteria of appointments in schools colleges and universities. No more, the present century holds teaching as a profession by Ã¢â¬ËchanceÃ¢â¬â¢ but teaching as a Ã¢â¬ËchoiceÃ¢â¬â¢. This scenario has placed an emphasis on the teachers to develop their potential, capacities in a way that no more they are called as a Ã¢â¬ËsimpleÃ¢â¬â¢ but Ã¢â¬ËeffectiveÃ¢â¬â¢ in performance by performing a quite range of functions such as ; classroom management, teaching and learning strategies and how to implement them successfully with professional ethics, student learning and so on. These views were strengthened by Travers Reborc (2008) who professed that teacher professionalism extends beyond oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to understand content. Here, the educator must discover if the students are being reached in an effective way. This calls for a profession which involves a lifelong career commitment and service to society. Teaching as a profession, no doubt is characterized by intellectual pursuits within a code of ethics and is highlighted by the making of independent professional judgements. But going by the present scenario, our country witness mass bunking from the classes, cheating, private tuitions and so on. To avoid this, this means that the teacher of today needs much more than just a mere subject expert. Further, through extensive training and professional development, they will incorporate in themselves lot of life skills which will not only enhance their performance but quality wise they will help them to grow to greater heights. * Changing Role of the Teacher in the Present Scenario The present scenario is characterized by the changing needs of the teacher which has pressurized him to change, reform and update according to the new teaching strategies, classroom practices and knowledge explosion. Let us have a look at the review how the role of the teachers has gradually changed:- * Koppic and Knapp (1998) highlighted that teacher can develop themselves with respect to practice if they focus on six dimensions narrated as; knowledge, professionalism, instruction, collaboration, agency and authority. He further added by saying that teachers to grow must make initiatives to make sense of new policies, ideas, programs and their own work. * According to Cohen Ball (1999) review of the federally funded research suggest that the teacher must be a researcher, educator and reformer. The research further highlighted that now is the time that he must understand when curriculum, instructional materials and assessments so that he can focus on the goal and prospects of educational improvement to be enhanced. * Thomson Zeuli (1999) advocated that if teachers want to see that their students work they must enable themselves to change so that they can make distinctive changes in teaching practice and student learning. They further concluded that the most effective teacher learning is to focus on instruction-as- interaction, rather than on isolated elements of instruction. Lieberman Miller (2000) described the new professional teacher as researchers, meaning-makers, scholars, and inventors. Also they further stated that teachers establish a firm professional identity through which they act as the role model by updating themselves through the lifelong learning . * Lifelong learning as renewal and updating of knowledge Professional development is a normal part of school c ulture. Professional development is required in order to maintain certification. School corporations mandate that teachers participate in staff development opportunities offered by the school district throughout the year. Teachers may also be expected to draft growth plans to give direction to their ongoing learning. Salary schedules also encourage teacher learning by offering higher salaries to individuals with more training, degrees or credits. Occasionally teachers are permitted to attend workshops and conferences outside the school system. Teachers are expected to grow as professionals and need to learn while they are teaching if students are to receive an optimal education. While schools do allocate limited funds and release time to professional development, a view of teachers as life-long learners is a perspective that is missing in most schools given the limited cope, quantity, and quality of professional development available to teachers. It is not uncommon to hear the phrases Ã¢â¬Å"life-long learningÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"life-long learner. Ã¢â¬ These terms adorn school mission and goal statements. Few people would malign the importance of developing life-long learners, but fewer suggest ways in which such an ideal may be accomplished. Such a goal need not remain illusory. It is crucial that schools and communities recognize the importance of developing teachers as life-long learners. It seems foolish to hope to engender life-long learning skills and attitudes in children without paying attention to those same skills and attitudes in developing the teachers of those children. And if a teacher will remain a lifelong learner it would be facilitate him/her to cater to the upcoming problems in the realm to teaching learning process and the demands of the upcoming generation. * In-service Growth and Teacher As professionals we still have a long way to go. Even now in in-service teacher education is seldom conceptualized in practice as the continuation of pre service preparation. Too frequently in service practices are characterized by an aggregate of incidental activities, sporadic in occurrence, lacking in productive purpose, unorganized in structure and unsynchronized within the framework of a school districtÃ¢â¬â¢s total operation. Perhaps a staff does grow or improve through such activities; however, the evidence seems to indicate that the bird of chance wings high on the winds of such uncertainty. Programs or practices of in service teacher education which appear to be producing results of a promising and lasting character are those in which conscious effort is made to reduce the element of chance in the development of staff. At the practical as well as the therotical level, positive and directional growth is enhanced through a program of inservice teacher education which develops activities planned most carefully in terms of directional purposes, organizational structure, and operational processes which are synchronized and complementary. Conclusion Knowledge is no longer considered a commodity which only a subject expertise can provide. In the present scenario knowledge is something which individuals constructs and create from their own experience with the materials, ideas texts they have. Teachers of today and of preparation (pre-service teachers) have to construct themselves, reform themselves according to the teachers they actually have and develop themselves professionally according to the new and emerging ideas of the knowledge, learning and instruction in their own learning situations in their classrooms. This give a call to teachers to work and learn in a way in which they can compete efficiently, confidently and critically so that he can become efficient in true terms and targeted as a priority. Suggestions * To promote professional values and attitudes such as reflective practice, autonomous learning and collaboration. * To improve Practical teaching competencies. * To consider teaching as a profession and promote teaching as an attractive career; * to keep a balance between theory and practice; All beginning teachers, during their first years in the profession receive professional and personal support (Ã¢â¬ËinductionÃ¢â¬â¢); * To engage themselves in regular reviews of their training needs and effective continuing professional development. * To develop and improve themselves as leaders for learning. This means that the role of the teacher in the year 2020 demands him to update and rehearse himself in a seamless continuum so that he has a assured quality. REFERENCES Ball, D. L. Cohen, D. K. (1999). Developing practice, developing practitioners: Toward a practice-based theory of professional education. Caroll, T. , Resta, P. (2010). Redefining teacher education for digital-age learners. Summit report from the Invitational Summit on Redefining Teacher Education for Digital-Age Learners. Retrieved from: http://redefineteachered. org/sites/default/files/SummitReport. pdf? q=summitreport Garoia,Valentina. (2012) . A closer look at the future of teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ profession in 2025. Retrieved from http://insight. eun. org/ww/en/pub/insight/thematic_dossiers/articles/learning_networks/2025. html. Lieberman, A. , ; Miller, L. (2000). Teaching and teacher development: A new synthesis for a new century. In R. S. Brandt How to cite A Vision of Teaching Profession in 2025, Essay examples
Question: Discuss about theHuman Factors in Healthcare for Equipments and Workspace. Answer: Human factors can be described as the field of science that mainly remains concerned with the performance of humans in a given system. Researchers have mainly defined these factors as those which help in enhancement of the clinical performance of the healthcare areas by properly understanding the effects of teamwork, tasks, equipments, workspace and culture and organization on human behaviour and abilities (Carayon et al., 2014). It also involves the application of these factors in the knowledge of clinical settings so that safety of the patients can be maintained and also at the same time quality care can be provided by proper competency and skills. This assignment will mainly comprise of a literature review about how human factors in healthcare are associated with maintenance of safety of patients and how these can help individuals to develop skills and knowledge for making the work culture better. Researchers are of the opinion that healthcare systems which are developed depending upon the principles of human factors can ensure positive impact on safety of the patients and also of the fellow healthcare professionals working together. These can be achieved by reduction of different types of harms through betterment of designs of healthcare systems and also by using the correct equipments. Equipments which are used for different purposes for providing evidence based care should be known by the healthcare professionals properly so that no harm can occur to patients. Moreover patients who use equipments for various diagnoses like glucometer, sphygmomanometer should also be properly educated so that they can effectively handle such equipments and use them fruitfully (Dekker, 2016). Care should be taken that unskilled persons should never handle this as this may lead to improper functioning of the machines and hence wrong results or destruction of the equipments which may lead to lo ss of resources. Researchers are also of the opinion that healthcare centers which mainly remain based on human factors also provide importance to the understanding why healthcare staffs work and why they make errors. They also tend to research on how system factors can threaten patient safety and thereby they try to implement proper strategies to lessen them. Maintaining of human factors also improve safety culture of teams and organizations. Enhancing teamwork and thereby improving communication between different staffs and healthcare professionals can be ascertained by those healthcares who provide importance to human factors (Carayon, Xie Kianfar, 2014). Human factors also help to develop ideas about how improvement can be made in the field of learning when things go wrong by providing importance to improvement of the present current approaches to innocent and investigation. Moreover Human factor principle also guides organizations to predict different situations beforehand by taking different initiatives like application of cognitive task analysis, prospective risk assessment tools and also providing workload assessments. An interesting connection was made by researchers between proper establishment of human factors and maintaining of safety at workplace. He has stated that human factors are fallible and therefore their performance at work can be affected by different personal life experiences, different types of external pressures and also lack of different sort of support structures. Therefore these factors should be properly maintained and looked after so that safety at work is not compromised. Researchers like Russ et al. (2013) are of the opinion that non technical skills like teamwork, leadership as well as workload management and communication all play a very important role in development of patient safety. Human factors also provide staffs to identify different incidence s which actually are opportunities that provide them scope for learning an also improvement especially taking in the patient; perspectives. Improvement of patient safety also involves considering the effectivity of team work a nd collaboration not only among teams but also from different departmental interfaces. There are a number of human factor which acts as the component of patient safety. One of the broad categories which is an important parts of the human factor principles are the individualistic approaches taken by healthcare stakeholders (Seagull Greenberg, 2015). A large number of psychological as well as physiological factors are present which are responsible for influencing the behaviors of the staff which mainly determine the safety issues in a healthcare. These human factors which need to be brushed often by the healthcare researchers to assure safety are the cognitive as well as social and different personal resource skills. These are helpful in complementing technical skills as well as contribute to different safe as well as efficient practices. Other researchers are of the opinion that every healthcare professional should be well adapted with the skill called Situation awareness. This is defined by them as the perception of the different elements in the working place that mai nly revolves around a particular volume of time and apace along with their comprehension of the meaning and thereby projection of their status in the future times (Holden et al., 2013). Every professionals need to be skilled for developing a skill called perception or attention. This component helps individuals to continuously monitor all the occurrences happening in the surrounding of the task in order to develop an insight about what is happening at the moment and what could happen in the next coming moments. This would help individuals to prevent emergency and maintain safety by practicing proper decision making skills as well as the judge what actions are needed to be taken in course of emergency or any strenuous situations. It also extends to team level and should depend on shared decision making to ensure safety. Researchers are of the opinion that proper decision making is also important for maintaining workplace safety. Individuals working in the healthcare industry should b e aware of the four types of decision-making which gets ensured results. It may be creative where a totally new course of action is devised to meet the requirement (Wetterneck et al., 2014). It can be also called Choice through comparison of options where the individuals can identify different available courses of action and then compare among themselves to find the best one which would be helpful for the situations. Another can be rue based decision making style where individuals need to follow certain rules for an identified situation. The last one is the recognition primed style where at first the situation is recognized and then the individuals need to recall the stored course of action from the memory. These procedures would allow individuals to make the correct decisions making which will maintain patient safety and remove any chances of errors. Another human factor that may affect patient safety in healthcare are the stress and fatigue that are developed by workers over time which might impact on the care delivery and hence may affect patient safety. Job related stress may result from workload as well restricted autonomy (Meeks et al., 2014). Moreover improper and inadequate time off also create emotional exhaustion that in turn results in development of aversion towards patient which results poor care delivery. Stress and fatigue also results different types of work errors along with reduced productivity. Feelings of discomfort, an illness as well as poor team performance can also result which impact the caring of the patients and expose them to higher danger for the patients. Loss of concentration due to stress and fatigue results in error which might bring out adverse reaction (Thommassen et al., 2014). Work environment mainly the workplace hazards also act as important factor for patient safety. It can be described as the set of circumstances as well as a situation which may harm individuals health and also welfare. In order to ensure safety of the patients, organizations should make sure that they indentify all the risks and hazards embedded in the processes as well as in the different systems of the healthcare in all the complex series of interactions that occur between the patient and the healthcare workers and also between patients as well as their equipments (Wilson, 2014). Using analytical methods, stakeholders should analyze methods by different ways like single event level like root cause analysis. Process level like failures modes effect analysis and also system level including probabilistic risk assessment methods can also be used to ensure elimination of workplace hazard and ensure safety at workplace (Wang et al., 2014). On a broader scale, a culture of safety needs to be maintained in the workplace for betterment of care delivery to patients. In order to develop a culture of safety, initiatives need to be taken by organizations to develop and design processes as well as allocate workforce which should be focused on the development of clear goals so that reliability as well as safety of the care process can be ensured. Workforce should be well guides about maintenance of safety culture and they should be aligned with the organizations objectives for a high quality care. Researchers are of the opinion that effective managerial leadership can entertain proper strategies by which a stable environment in the workplace can be maintained by proper guidance, relationship building, proper feedbacks and others (Ratwant et al., 2015). They can help in ensuring safe and evidence based care delivery by providing emphasis on the safety on the productivity along with the adopting of a decentralized style. Leaders should involve themselves in the team initiatives and thereby relay the corporate visions for different safety measures. They should be concerned about the practices of the professionals and allocate proper resources for maintenance of the comprehensive safety measures. They should encourage the workers to develop their skills and knowledge regarding safety maintenance of patients and hence ensure patient safety. Another important human factor is the maintenance of effective communication in workplace. Researchers like Valdez et al., (2014) have stated that effective communication in the workplace is very much important for developing work efficiency and also for high quality service care delivery and also ensuring safe work. Proper communication ensures development of knowledge and help in establishing the predicable behaviors patterns. They also help in developing and strengthening bonds among different stakeholders that ensure proper team work. It can prevent errors in care deliv ery by preventing organizational system failures, reception failures and also transmission failures. Effective communication procedures among the different stakeholders will ensure error free shift and patient handover (Ajlan Harsh, 2015). Correct information recorded in documents and patient files, case notes and also in incidence notes due to effective communication will increase patient safety. Better the communication more will be the transparency in the working environment and better will be the open mindedness attitude of the professionals which will ensure patient safety. Effective teamwork is another important human factor which ensures that the cares delivered by professionals are of the highest quality and free form any errors. Proper coordination and collaboration among team members ensure proper sharing of information that helps each of the individuals to compete their own part of task successfully. Researchers like Rasouli et al., (2014) are of the opinion that 70% of the errors occurring in service delivery mainly take place due to poor team communication, internal conflicts and also improper understanding. Proper team work helps in reduction of the patient safety problems and also ensures increase in the morale of the team members. In order to develop high function teams, it is very important for employers or leaders to provide them with opportunities as well as facilities so that they can develop their practices. Some of the important components of this human factor of team work are goal comprehension and effective communication. Conflict man agement, proper decision making and also performance evaluations are important for evaluation of the performance of teams. Proper division of labor according to own skills, leadership, process monitoring an effective feedback ensures proper functioning of teams and management of patient safety (Vincent Amalberto, 2016). Therefore from the literature review it becomes quite clear that maintaining human factors can ensure a stable workplace with proper safety maintenance and high quality service delivery. It will reduce preventable deaths, long hospitals stays of patients and their poor quality lives. The different factors are effective team work, leadership, communication and maintenance of safety cultures. Moreover, reduction of stress and fatigue, situation awareness an also proper decision making also causes reduction in errors in practices. Workplace hazards should also be cared for by the organizations so that safety is ensured not only for patients but also for professionals. This would help in creation of a workplace which would ensure the best care for all patients. References: Ajlan, A. M., Harsh, G. R. (2015). The Human Factor and Safety Attitudes in Neurosurgical Operating Rooms.World neurosurgery,83(1), 46-48. Carayon, P., Wetterneck, T. B., Rivera-Rodriguez, A. J., Hundt, A. S., Hoonakker, P., Holden, R., Gurses, A. P. (2014). Human factors systems approach to healthcare quality and patient safety.Applied ergonomics,45(1), 14-25. Carayon, P., Xie, A., Kianfar, S. (2014). Human factors and ergonomics as a patient safety practice.BMJ Qual Saf,23(3), 196-205. Dekker, S. (2016).Patient safety: a human factors approach. CRC Press. Holden, R.J., Carayon, P., Gurses, A.P., Hoonakker, P., Hundt, A.S., Ozok, A.A. Rivera-Rodriguez, A.J., 2013). SEIPS 2.0: a human factors framework for studying and improving the work of healthcare professionals and patients.Ergonomics,56(11), pp.1669-1686. Meeks, D.W., Smith, M.W., Taylor, L., Sittig, D.F., Scott, J.M. Singh, H., (2014). An analysis of electronic health record-related patient safety concerns.Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association,21(6), pp.1053-1059. Rasouli, M. R., Restrepo, C., Maltenfort, M. G., Purtill, J. J., Parvizi, J. (2014). Risk factors for surgical site infection following total joint arthroplasty.JBJS,96(18), e158. Ratwani, R. M., Fairbanks, R. J., Hettinger, A. Z., Benda, N. C. (2015). Electronic health record usability: analysis of the user-centered design processes of eleven electronic health record vendors.Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association,22(6), 1179-1182. Russ, A. L., Fairbanks, R. J., Karsh, B. T., Militello, L. G., Saleem, J. J., Wears, R. L. (2013). The science of human factors: separating fact from fiction.BMJ Qual Saf,22(10), 802-808. Seagull, F. J., Greenberg, G. M. (2015, June). Inter-professional Human Factors Education: Democratizing Safety and Quality. InProceedings of the International Symposium on Human Factors and Ergonomics in Health Care(Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 165-167). Sage India: New Delhi, India: SAGE Publications. Thomassen, ., Storesund, A., Sfteland, E., Bratteb, G. (2014). The effects of safety checklists in medicine: a systematic review.Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica,58(1), 5-18. Valdez, R. S., Holden, R. J., Novak, L. L., Veinot, T. C. (2014). Transforming consumer health informatics through a patient work framework: connecting patients to context.Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association,22(1), 2-10. Vincent, C., Amalberti, R. (2016). Strategies for Safety. InSafer Healthcare(pp. 59-72). Springer International Publishing. Wang, C. H., Lee, Y. D., Chou, H. L. (2014). An importance-performance analysis of human factors for patient safety management strategy.Journal of Testing and Evaluation,43(6), 1435-1443. Wetterneck, T., Kelly, M. M., Carayon, P., Sesto, M., Tevaarwerk, A., Chui, M., ... Beasley, J. (2014, September). Improving Quality and Safety through Human Factors Collaborations with Healthcare: The System Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety. InProceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting(Vol. 58, No. 1, pp. 728-732). Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications. Wilson, J. R. (2014). Fundamentals of systems ergonomics/human factors.Applied ergonomics,45(1), 5-13.
Saturday, April 25, 2020
Position Paper on Child Survival 1. INTRODUCTION Save the Children is a child focused organisation that delivers immediate and lasting improvements in childrens lives. The organisation is committed to improve the health status of children in India and protect them from exploitation, abuse and ill health. In the current context, Save the ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s primary focus is on supporting the system in accelerating the progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4 aimed at one-third reduction in child mortality rates from 1990 level, by 2015. Child Survival Situation in India India is faced with an unparalleled child survival and health challenge. The country contributes 1. 95 million of the global burden of 9. 2 million under-five child deaths, which is the highest for any nation in the world. Nearly 26 million infants are born each year, of whom nearly 1 million die before completing the first 4 weeks of life and 1. 7 million die before reaching the first birthday. India has a population of 1. We will write a custom essay sample on Save the Children or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page 17 billion. Children below the age of 18 years account for 38. 4% of IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s population and of these 127 million are between 0-5 years. The infant mortality rate in India is 54 per 1000 live births and the neonatal mortality is 39/1000 live births. Almost one in every three babies in the world, who die before they are four weeks old, is from India. Less than half (44%) of children of 12-23 months are fully immunized against the six major preventable diseases. 45. 9% of Indian children under three are underweight. Nearly 80% of infants now have anaemia. Each year 27 million pregnancies take place in the country with only 32. 9% women accessing the Government health services for antenatal care. Only 52% pregnant women have at least three visits for antenatal care. Government of India launched the National Rural Health Mission on 12thÃ April 2005, to provide accessible, affordable and accountable quality health services to the poor households in rural areas. From narrowly defined vertical schemes, the NRHM has shifted the focus to a functional integrated health system at all levels, from the village to the district. Under the NRHM, the difficult areas with unsatisfactory health indicators have been classified as special focus States to ensure greatest attention where needed. The thrust of the Mission is on establishing a fully functional, community owned, decentralised health delivery system with inter-sectoral convergence at all levels, to ensure simultaneous action on a wide range of determinants of healthÃ like water, sanitation, nutrition, social and gender equality in addition to health per se. In order to ensure delivery of quality services to the people, Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS) have been set for all Government health facilities such as the Sub Centre, Primary Health Centre and Community Health Centre for the type and number of medical and paramedical personnel in them and the basic infrastructure. The Government expects that evidence based interventions like the Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses (IMNCI) for improved child survival and that the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) which promotes institutional deliveries will lead to India attaining the health related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The initiatives like reform of the Integrated Child Development Services Scheme (ICDS), and its universalisation with quality are given emphasis to bring rapid improvement in the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s health and nutrition status, which however will depend upon the effective implementation of these schemes. There is an urgent need to enhance the capacities of the grassroots level functionaries so that, using the existing framework of NRHM and ICDS, they can deliver quality services to improve the scenario of maternal and child health in India. Another area which is needed to be strengthened is the on-ground coordination amongst the key departments who can have an impact on the current women and child health situation. Malnutrition: National Family Health Survey (NHFS-3) showed that there has not been much improvement in the nutritional status of children, within the last eight ears. During NFHS-2 (1998-1999), 47% of children under three were found to be underweight while 46% of children under three years of age being underweight, according to. This means every second child under six years of age in India is underweight, a statistic worse than that in sub-Saharan Africa. Almost half (48. 4%) of all children under five are stunted (short for their age, an indicator of chronic malnutrit ion) while 20% of children are wasted (too thin for their height, an indicator of acute malnutrition). As much as 43% children are underweight for their age. Exclusive breastfeeding and appropriate complementary feeding of children which are identified as major determinants of child survival still remain significant challenges to be addressed. Only 69% of children less than two months of age are exclusively breastfed which drops to 51 percent at 2-3 months and 28 percent at 4-5 months of age. Overall, slightly less than half of the children under six months of age are exclusively breastfed.  Only 53% children receive complementary foods between 6-8 months of age. Due to cultural beliefs and ingrained practices over ages, many mothers are still not able to follow appropriate infant feeding practices leading to increase in morbidity and mortality of children less than 5 years of age. Over half of all women (56%) in India are anaemic as are 70% of children under the age of five. 22% of all children whose birth weight record is available are low birth weight babies, which is a significant contributing factor to malnutrition later in life. The issue of underweight children is particularly serious in rural areas and among the poorest families, ethnic minorities and lower castes. . KEY ISSUES With one child dying every three seconds, India registers the highest number of child deaths across the globe. The major killers of children are Ã¢â¬â acute respiratory infections, dehydration due to diarrhoea, measles and neonatal tetanus and in some areas malaria. The high prevalence of malnutrition contributes to over 50% of child deaths. In India , a significant proportion of child deaths (over 40% of under-five Mortality and 64% of infant mortality) take place in the neonatal period. Apart from infections, other causes like asphyxia, hypothermia and pre-maturity are responsible for neonatal mortality. About one-third of the newborns have a birth weight less than 2500 gram (low-birth weight). A significant proportion of mortality occurs in low-birth weight babies. It has been recognised that further reduction of IMR will require focused attention on Neonatal mortality. The most challenging part of infant mortality, we all know, is the large proportion of newborn deaths, contributing to around 70% of all infant deaths, that too mostly taking place in the first week of life. Mortality rate in the second month of life is also higher than at later ages. In short, to achieve this goal, India needs extra emphasis to save newborns. Over 50% of the child deaths are associated with malnutrition. Of the 19 million infants in the developing world who have low birth weight (less than 2,500 grams), 8. 3 million are in India. Malnutrition is the result of a combination of factors. They include cultural inhibitions causing low adoption of exclusive breast feeding, poor understanding of complementary feeding; insufficient awareness of nutritional needs lack of purchasing power leading to inadequate access to food, inequitable distribution of available food and poor food habits. The other key indirect causes include lack of health care services, non availability of clean water and safe sanitation, poverty and lack of livelihood opportunities. 3. OVERALL STATEMENT OF SAVE THE CHILDREN INDIA Save the Children India works to support the communities and families in undertaking actions at their level which can save newborn and young childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. We focus on strengthening community systems by enhancing the capacities of CBOs, involving people and children in their own health care and increasing the awareness of communities to generate demand for quality health services. For improving the quality and coverage of basic Maternal, Newborn, Child health and nutrition services, Save the Children India also works on capacity building of Anganwadi workers, Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) and Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANM) in its areas of operation. This contributes directly towards strengthening the supply side of services. Save the Children India will work as a catalyst to initiate social change around child survival and strengthen coordination, as recommended in the National Rural Health Mission, amongst various sectors/programmes/departments which work for addressing child survival related issues. Save the Children India for addressing the child survival issues through improved service delivery, supports and works in close coordination with the departments of health and women and child development. The organisation, specifically works through the framework of Integrated Child Development Services Scheme (ICDS) to deliver benefits to the children. Save the Children IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s principal strategy is to develop innovative solutions to the problems which the system encounters in delivering quality maternal, newborn child health and nutrition services. Another area which Save the Children India would also address is access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation, as this is an indispensable component of health and development. Studies show that the coverage of safe drinking water is low and much slow progress has been made globally in improving sanitation coverage. Incorporating principles of sustainable development into policies and strategies would cause some improvements towards health goals. 4. SAVE THE CHILDRENÃ¢â¬â¢S STRATEGIES WILL BE: To address maternal, neonatal, child health and nutritional needs of the communities, by involving the community itself and the children in the process Ã¢â¬ ¢ Enhance the capacity of service providers to deliver quality Maternal child health and nutrition services Ã¢â¬ ¢ Generate demand for basic health care services in the communities, with special focus on marginalised and underprivileged sections, through awareness generation activities Ã¢â¬ ¢ Strengthen convergence between key dep artments to ensure effective delivery f quality health services Ã¢â¬ ¢ Push the agenda of child survival to highest priority through advocacy at all levels Ã¢â¬ ¢ Generate demand for the quality child survival services by creating awareness through public campaigns for the communities Save the Children IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Plan of Action: In the initial phase, health and nutrition interventions will be undertaken in the states of Rajasthan, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, Gujarat and Maharashtra. These are the states where Save the children has been working for several years in the field of education, child protection and disaster relief. With deep understanding of the issues at all levels, as stated above, Save the Children India realises that in these states there is an urgent need to address health and nutrition issues to make the approach more holistic. In designing the health and nutrition interventions Save the Children in India will keep the issues of child protection and child rights in focus. Save the Children India, will try to involve children in the advocacy work at the grassroots level. We plan to replicate the good practices which have been tested and proved to be effective in addressing the issues of child survival. In all its interventions, Save the Children India will address the weaker areas of the system as revealed by the in national and state level demographic and health studies. For all the activities, Save the Children India works in close coordination with the Government structure and other civil society players in the field. Key Target Groups: Children are the central point for planning, in all our interventions. We target to deliver benefits to newborns, children under the age of five years, pregnant and nursing mothers through our interventions. The organisation strives to provide quality community based health and nutrition services through capacity building of community based volunteers, health and ICDS functionaries, and awareness generation in the communities about child health and nutrition issues along with Child Rights and protection issues. Save the Children India expects the benefits of these approaches to cover over 500,000 children in the next 3 years. Programmatic Approach: In order to provide support to the public health delivery system, Save the Children India adopts locally and culturally relevant support models to deliver community based child health and nutrition services. The geographic focus for implementing programmes will be on the underperforming districts with large percentage of most marginalised and vulnerable population. The programme models are implemented through communities, and community based organisations / NGOs and the grassroots level workers of the public health delivery system. Save the Children India provides technical, programmatic and financial support to all the implementing partners. Save the Children India also works to support the existing frameworks of health and ICDS, and strengthens them rather than creating a parallel structure. This approach of strengthening community systems is a sustainable support to the health care delivery system. Save the Children India will work with the Government at all levels and play a major role in advocating for evidence based changes in policies that affect children. In all the activities we involve communities, with special emphasis on involving children. . FUTURE DIRECTIONS In July 2008, Save the Children India initiated a health and nutrition project in the states of Rajasthan and West Bengal, working with communities and health workers to improve health and nutrition of mothers and children in the region. In September 2008, Emergency Health and Nutrition interventions were rolled out in the states of Bihar and Orissa as a response to the floods. Save the Children IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s future work to address the issues of child Survival will be focused on the underperforming districts of Rajasthan, Orissa, West Bengal, Bihar and Delhi. In the subsequent phase expansion to other states is being planned. The programme designs will be based on the area specific priorities through contextualisation and up-scaling the high impact good practices as evidenced in the current activities.  UNICEF, State of the WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Children ( SoWC)2009  UNICEF Ã¢â¬â SoWC 2009  UNICEF Ã¢â¬â SoWC 2009, NFHS3 2005-06 SRS Bulletin October 2008  WHO Health Statistics 2007  NFHS-3 2005-06  UNICEF SoWC 2008  NFHS-3 2005-06 p. 196  NFHS 3 2005-06  NFHS-3 2005-06  NFHS-3 2005-06  UNICEF SoWC 2008  WHO India Web page  UNICEF SoWC 2008